Dedicated to the writings of Saint Luke.

Friday, February 09, 2007

25 more reasons why Luke is early

26. Theophilus is not addressed as “most excellent” at the beginning of Acts and therefore was probably now the former High Priest at the time Acts was written.

27. There is no mention of the death of James.

28. Stephen's sermon, Paul's "white-wash wall" retort and the parables of the Wicked Tenants and the Rich Man and Lazarus, are all directed to the High Priest.

29. The Lucan Jesus does not rebuke the Sadducees. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus does rebuke the Sadducees.

30. Only in Luke does Jesus heal the servant of the High Priest.

31. Luke has adopted the rules of evidence of Jewish law.

32. Marshall has stated “Luke shows a particular interest in Herod Antipas, ruler of Galilee and Peraea from 4 B.C. until his disposition by Caligula in A.D. 39. Luke 3:19; 8:3; 9:7,9; 13:31; 23:7-15; Acts 4:27; 13:1.” The Theophilus proposal explains this interest. Luke wrote his Gospel during the reign of Herod Antipas.

33. Luke uses a Semitic structure known as apodotic kai which is common in Hebrew, but in not Greek, suggesting that the passages where the Semitic structure exist are passages written in Hebrew and later translated for inclusion in the writings of Luke.

34. Matthew copied from Acts 28:26-27 what he includes in 13:14-15 as a quotation from Isaiah. Gundry asserts that the quotation is in “exact agreement with Acts [28:26-27], even in the omission of the same word, shows that the quotation has been interpolated from Acts.”

35. The Lucan Jesus, according to the Messianic Apocalypse, is the eschatological messiah and prophet because only the Lucan Jesus fulfills the prophecy contained in 4Q521.

36. Matthew and Mark include the cursing of the fig tree, a scene so uncharacteristic of Jesus.

37. The killing of the servants bringing the invitations to the wedding banquet in Matthew is senseless. According to Borsch, “This apparently motiveless killing is one of the signs that a historical allegorical interest has superseded a concern with realism in the narrative.”

38. Luke-Acts has adopted the Isaianic themes of the rejection of the Holy One, the Messianic hope, the motif of the city and the concept of witnesses. Matthew and Mark have not adopted these themes.

39. Of all the New Testament authors, Luke is the one most influenced by the Deuteronomistic style and is the only one to supplement his writing with a historiography.

40. Luke accurately describes as a lake what Matthew and Mark identified as the Sea of Galiliee.

41. In reading the Passion as recorded in the synoptic gospels, one can not help but notice that Satan has disappeared from Matthew and Mark. Luke tells us: “Then Satan entered into Judas” and then Judas met with the chief priests and agreed to betray Jesus. Satan is the chief instigator in Luke but has no role in Matthew and Mark. Satan is also mentioned in the Lucan scene where Peter’s denial is predicted. The last mention of Satan in Matthew and Mark is the Confession at Caesarea Philippi. For Luke, Satan is still a force in the world. The victory motif was held in high esteem in the early church.

42. There is no destruction of the Temple charge in the Gospel of Luke.

43. This generation refers to those who heard and saw Jesus as witnesses and who are now (the first generation) listening and/or reading Luke. All of the explicit references to the destruction of the city are to be found in the special material of the Gospel of Luke. Those most interested in the fate of Jerusalem were not Gentiles but were Jewish residents of the city. The Lucan Jesus tells the people the signs so that they will know when to leave the city. If Luke wrote to the Gentiles post 70 CE, the most impressive statement he could make would be: “Jesus predicted the destruction of the Temple and of Jerusalem and this prophecy was fulfilled.” If Luke were writing after 70 CE, he would have noted the separate fates of the city and Temple. Although Luke on numerous occasions emphasized the fulfillment of prophecy, nowhere in Luke or Acts does he indicate that the prophecy regarding the fate of the city and Temple has been fulfilled.

44. Only Luke uses the expression “the finger of God” which was very appropriate because it also answered the charge of Deut. 13:1-5 by stating that his exorcisms were performed by none other than the God of the Exodus. This established him as the true prophet like Moses (Acts 3:22), mighty in word and deed (Lk. 24:19; Acts 7:22).

45. Luke used "interpretative alterations or expansions within Old Testament quotations, which is a form of implicit midrash found in Jewish texts" with Acts 4:11 being one such example.

46. The High Priests identified in Luke-Acts, with one exception, are all members of one high priestly family.

47. Luke does not mention the alliance between the Pharisees and the Herodians which is an anachronism appearing in Matthew and Mark.

48. There was no night session in the home of the High Priest. As David Flusser has stated in his chapter entitled, “Who Is It That Struck You,” the correct sequence of events, from Jesus’ arrest to the point at which he was turned over to the Romans was given by Luke.” John Lupia has stated: “The corruption of the details involving the game shows fatigue on the part of Mt & Mk.”

49. Luke’s concept of almsgiving based on stewardship was unique and radical. We find more references to alms and almsgiving in his writings than anywhere else in the New Testament. Luke not only preached a radical concept of almsgiving, when he had the opportunity, he implemented it. What we see in the Macedonian example is the radical concept Luke advocated in his writings. Luke is the brother of high reputation, well known and respected in all the communities for his commitment to the principle of the gospel. He had been appointed because he had gained the esteem of the congregations during the six or seven years he had served them as a minister of the word. The message he preached we know as the Gospel of Luke.

50. Luke is an eyewitness and a minister of the word.

This is a work in progress.

Copyrighted 2007


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